Target Behaviours and Audiences

The Government of Tanzania aims to improve the health status of the people by controlling water and sanitation related diseases. A number of campaigns have been implemented to induce behavioural change at the household level since 1973. The Mtu ni Afya campaign that was implemented between 1973 and 1978 instigated remarkable improvements including increasing the coverage of basic sanitation from 20% to 80%.

The National Sanitation Campaign targets two major behaviours and two major core audiences. The performance of these behaviours will lead to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the national goal of universal sanitation access. The core audiences who ultimately control whether the goals will be met include heads of households and other stakeholders. The table below highlights the key audiences and targeted behaviour.

Target Audience Target Result of Campaign The behaviour to be developed
Heads of Households Convinced that an improved latrine completes his/her modern lifestyle Convinced that hand washing with soap makes her completely modern Upgrade to an improved latrine and install a handwashing stand with soap
Private sector Businesses are convinced that their business can profit from selling Choo Bora Stocking and actively selling Choo Bora
Government Officials Government officials are convinced that their current development interventions will not lead to completely modern lifestyles until they prioritize Choo Bora Prioritize Choo Bora in the MTEF
Development partners DPs are convinced that their support to the GoT will have an impact if Choo bora is and priority Include Choo Bora as a priority in support to the GoT
Political leaders Political leaders are convinced that they are not complete in their struggle to get popular without promotion of Nyumba ni Choo. Active promotion of Nyumba ni Choo
Influential persons Influential people are convinced that Choo bora and hand washing with soap constitutes a modern lifestyle Conspicuously upgrade to an improved latrine and install a handwashing stand with soap and encourage others to do similar


The country will see the largest sanitation improvements by engaging young homemakers who are starting their own lives and families.

  • The Campaign’s sweet spot is 15-39-year-old homemakers and heads of households. This group is approximately 37% of the population. They are open to new ideas and are more likely to want an improved sanitation facility. Their actions and influence on their families determine the trajectory of sanitation and hygiene improvements in Tanzania.
  • 0-14-year-olds, who make up 45% of the population, are not in a strong position to take action, but the communications can help shape their sentiment and demand for better sanitation and hygiene.

The 18% of the population who are over 45 are more difficult to persuade, hence are not a prime target. However, some will take action as a result of the campaign.

The Campaign’s sweet spot is 15-39-year-old homemakers and heads of households. This group is approximately 37% of the population.

Secondary campaign targets are those groups who are critical to facilitate and sustain the achievement of sanitation and hygiene targets:

  • Private Sector: – part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit, and is not controlled by the State.
  • Political leaders: – a person who rules or guides or inspires others. In other words, a political leader could be a campaigner, candidate, nominee who is running for public office. He/She is a person who seeks support by appealing to popular passions and prejudices.
  • Government Officials: – a person who is involved in public administration or government, through either election, appointment, selection, or employment.
  • Influential People: – someone or something that has an impact on or shapes how people act or how things occur. A person who convinces others to listen and do what he suggests is an example of an influential person
  • Development Partners: – individuals/organizations that provide financial and technical support for the country to achieve the development goals.